Appalachian fiddle music, based on the musical traditions of the people who settled in the mountainous regions of the southeastern United States, is widely-known and played throughout North America and parts of Europe because of its complex rhythms, its catchy melodies, and its often-ancient-sounding stylistic qualities. The authors explore the lives and music of 43 of the classic Appalachian fiddlers who were active during the first half of the 20th century. Some of them were recorded commercially in the 1920s, such as Gid Tanner, Fiddlin' John Carson, and Charlie Bowman. Some were recorded by folklorists from the Library of Congress, such as William Stepp, Emmett Lundy, and Marion Reece. Others were recorded informally by family members and visitors, such as John Salyer, Emma Lee Dickerson, and Manco Sneed. All of them played throughout most of their lives and influenced the growth and stylistic elements of fiddle music in their regions. Each fiddler has been given a chapter with a biography, several tune transcriptions, and tune histories. To show the richness of the music, the authors make a special effort to show the musical elements in detail, but also acknowledge that nothing can take the place of listening. Many of the classic recordings used in this book can be found on the web, allowing you to hear and read the music together.